Tuesday, June 14, 2011

Education in Sudan التعليم في السودان

 Education in Sudan is free and compulsory for children aged 6 to 13 years. Primary education consists of eight years, followed by three years of secondary education. The former educational ladder 6 + 3 + 3 was changed in 1990. The primary language at all levels is Arabic. Schools are concentrated in urban areas; many in the South and West have been damaged or destroyed by years of civil war. In 2001 the World Bank estimated that primary enrollment was 46 percent of eligible pupils and 21 percent of secondary students. Enrollment varies widely, falling below 20 percent in some provinces. Sudan has 19 universities; instruction is primarily in Arabic. Education at the secondary and university levels has been seriously hampered by the requirement that most males perform military service before completing their education.[1]
According to World Bank estimates for 2002, the literacy rate in adults aged 15 years and older was 60 percent. In 2000 the comparable figure was almost 58 percent (69 percent for males, 46 percent for females); youth illiteracy (ages 15–24) was estimated at 23 percent.[1]

History

The public and private education systems inherited by the government of Sudan after independence were designed to provide civil servants and professionals to serve the colonial administration, rather than to educate the Sudanese. Moreover, the distribution of facilities, staff, and enrollment was biased in favor of the needs of the administration and a Western curriculum.
Schools tended to be clustered in the vicinity of Khartoum and to a lesser extent in other urban areas, while the population was predominantly rural. This concentration was most marked beyond the four-year primary schools, where instruction was in the vernacular.
The north suffered from shortages of teachers and buildings, but education in the south was even more inadequate. During the condominium, education in the south was left largely to the mission schools, where the level of instruction proved so poor that as early as the mid-1930s the government imposed provincial education supervisors upon the missionaries, in return for the government subsidies that they sorely needed. The civil war and the ejection of all foreign missionaries in February 1964 further diminished education opportunities for southern Sudanese.
Since World War II the demand for education had exceeded Sudan's education resources. At independence in 1956, education accounted for only 15.5% of the Sudanese budget, or £Sd45 million (Sudanese pounds), to support 1,778 primary schools (enrollment 208,688), 108 intermediate schools (enrollment 14,632), and 49 government secondary schools (enrollment 5,423). Higher education was limited to the University of Khartoum, except for fewer than 1,000 students sent abroad by wealthy parents or on government scholarships. The adult literacy rate in 1956 was 22.9%, and, despite the efforts of successive governments, by 1990 it had risen only to about 30% in the face of a rapidly expanding population.
When the Nimeiri-led government took power in 1969, it considered the education system inadequate for the needs of social and economic development. Accordingly, an extensive reorganization was proposed, which would eventually make the new six-year elementary education program compulsory and would pay much more attention to technical and vocational education at all levels. Previously, primary and intermediate schools had been preludes to secondary training, and secondary schools prepared students for the university. The system produced some well- trained university graduates, but little was done to prepare for technical work or skilled labor the great bulk of students who did not go as far as the university or even secondary school.
By the late 1970s, the government's education system had been largely reorganized. There were some pre-primary schools, mainly in urban areas. The basic system consisted of a six-year curriculum in primary schools and three-year curriculum in junior secondary schools. From that point, qualified students could go on to one of three kinds of schools: the three-year upper secondary, which prepared students for higher education; commercial and agricultural technical schools; and teacher-training secondary schools designed to prepare primary-school teachers. The latter two institutions offered four-year programs. Postsecondary schools included universities, higher technical schools, intermediate teacher-training schools for junior secondary teachers, and higher teacher-training schools for upper-secondary teachers.
Of the more than 5,400 primary schools in 1980, less than 14% were located in southern Sudan, which had between 20 and 33 percent of the country's population. Many of these southern schools were established during the Southern Regional administration (1972–1981). The renewal of the civil war in mid- 1983 destroyed many schools, although the SPLA operated schools in areas under its control. Nevertheless, many teachers and students were among the refugees fleeing the ravages of war in the south.
In the early 1980s, the number of junior (also called general) secondary schools was a little more than one-fifth the number of primary schools, a proportion roughly consistent with that of general secondary to primary-school population (260,000 to 1,334,000). About 6.5 percent of all general secondary schools were in the south until 1983.
There were only 190 upper-secondary schools in the public system in 1980, but it was at this level that private schools of varying quality proliferated, particularly in the three cities of the capital area. Elite schools could recruit students who had selected them as a first choice, but the others took students whose examination results at the end of junior secondary school did not gain them entry to the government's upper secondary schools.

The hope for universal and compulsory education had not been realized by the early 1980s, but as a goal it led to a more equitable distribution of facilities and teachers in rural areas and in the south. During the 1980s, the government established more schools at all levels and with them, more teacher-training schools, although these were never sufficient to provide adequate staff. But the process was inherently slow and was made slower by limited funds and by the inadequate compensation for staff; teachers who could find a market for their skills elsewhere, including places outside Sudan, did not remain teachers within the Sudanese system.
The proliferation of upper-level technical schools has not dealt with what most experts saw as Sudan's basic education problem: providing a primary education to as many Sudanese children as possible. Establishing more primary schools was, in this view, more important that achieving equity in the distribution of secondary schools. Even more important was the development of a primary-school curriculum that was geared to Sudanese experience and took into account that most of those who completed six years of schooling did not go further. The realistic assumption was that Sudan's resources were limited and that expenditures on the postprimary level limited expenditures on the primary level, leaving most Sudanese children with an inadequate education. In the early 1990s this situation had not significantly changed.
In the mid-1970s, there were four universities, eleven colleges, and twenty-three institutes in Sudan. The universities were in the capital area, and all of the institutions of higher learning were in the northern provinces. Colleges were specialized degree-granting institutions. Institutes granted diplomas and certificates for periods of specialized study shorter than those commonly demanded at universities and colleges. These postsecondary institutions and universities had provided Sudan with a substantial number of well-educated persons in some fields but left it short of technical personnel and specialists in sciences relevant to the country's largely rural character.
By 1980 two new universities had opened, one in Al Awsat Province at Wad Madani, the other in Juba in Al Istiwai Province, and in 1981 there was talk of opening a university in Darfur, which was nearly as deprived of educational facilities as the south. By 1990 some institutes had been upgraded to colleges, and many had become part of an autonomous body called the Khartoum Institute of Technical Colleges (also referred to as Khartoum Polytechnic). Some of its affiliates were outside the capital area, for example, the College of Mechanical Engineering at Atbarah, northeast of Khartoum, and Al Jazirah College of Agriculture and Natural Resources at Abu Naamah in Al Awsat.
The oldest university was the University of Khartoum, which was established as a university in 1956. In 1990 it enrolled about 12,000 students in degree programs ranging from four to six years in length. Larger but less prestigious was the Khartoum branch of the University of Cairo with 13,000 students. The size of the latter and perhaps its lack of prestige reflected the fact that many if not most of its students worked to support themselves and attended classes in the afternoon and at night, although some day classes were introduced in 1980. Tuition only at the Khartoum branch was free, whereas all costs at the fully residential University of Khartoum were paid for by the government. At the Institute of Higher Technical Studies, which had 4,000 students in 1990, tuition was free, and a monthly grant helped to defray but did not fully cover other expenses. The smallest of the universities in the capital area was the specialized Islamic University of Omdurman, which existed chiefly to train Muslim religious judges and scholars.
The {Juba University], established in 1977, graduated its first class in 1981. It was intended to provide education for development and for the civil service for southern Sudan, although it was open to students from the whole country. In its first years, it enrolled a substantial number of civil servants from the south for further training, clearly needed in an area where many in the civil service had little educational opportunity in their youth. After the outbreak of hostilities in the south in 1983, the university was moved to Khartoum, a move that had severely curtailed its instructional programs, but the university continued to operate again in Juba in the late 1980s. Al Jazirah College of Agriculture and Natural Resources was also intended to serve the country as a whole, but its focus was consistent with its location in the most significant agricultural area in Sudan.
Of particular interest was the dynamic growth[3[1]2] and expansion of Omdurman Ahlia University. It was established by academics, professionals, and businesspeople in 1982 upon the hundredth anniversary of the founding of the city of Omdurman and was intended to meet the ever-growing demand for higher education and training. The university was to be nongovernmental, job oriented, and self-supporting. Support came mainly from private donations, foreign foundations, and the government, which approved the allotment of 30 acres (120,000 m2) of prime land on the western outskirts of Omdurman for the campus. Its curriculum, taught in English and oriented to job training pertinent to the needs of Sudan, had attracted more than 1,800 students by 1990. Its emphasis on training in administration, environmental studies, physics and mathematics, and library science had proven popular.
≥==Levels of Education== In Khartoum, the capital of Sudan, there are four main levels of education.
First: kindergarten and day-care. It begins in the age of 3-4, consists of 1-2 grades, (depending on the parents).
Second: elementary school. the first grade pupils enter at the age of 6-7 .and It consists of 8 grades , each year there is more academic efforts and main subjects added plus more school methods improvements. By the 8'th grade a student is 13–14 years old ready to take the certificate exam's and entering high school.
Third: upper second school and high school. At this level the school methods add some main academic subjects such as chemistry, biology, physics, geography, etc... there are three grades in this level. The students ages are about 14-15 to 17-18.
Higher Education: there are many universities in Sudan such as the university of Khartoum, even foreigners attend universities here, because the reputation of the universities are very good and the life expenses are low compared to other countries.
After all, the education system in Sudan went through many changes in the late 1980s and early 1990s.

Education reform

The revolutionary government of General Bashir announced sweeping reforms in Sudanese education in September 1990. In consultation with leaders of the Muslim Brotherhood and Islamic teachers and administrators, who were the strongest supporters of his regime, Bashir proclaimed a new philosophy of education. He allocated £Sd400 million for the academic year 1990-91 to carry out these reforms and promised to double the sum if the current education system could be changed to meet the needs of Sudan.
The new education philosophy was to provide a frame of reference for the reforms. Education was to be based on the permanence of human nature, religious values, and physical nature. This was to be accomplished by a Muslim curriculum, which in all schools, colleges, and universities would consist of two parts: an obligatory and an optional course of study. The obligatory course to be studied by every student was to be based on revealed knowledge concerning all disciplines. All the essential elements of the obligatory course would be drawn from the Quran and the recognized books of the hadith. The optional course of study would permit the student to select certain specializations according to individual aptitudes and inclinations. Whether the government could carry out such sweeping reforms throughout the country in the face of opposition from within the Sudanese education establishment and the dearth of resources for implementing such an ambitious project remained to be seen. Membership in the Popular Defence Forces, a paramilitary body allied to the National Islamic Front, became a requirement for university admission. By early 1991, General Bashir had decreed that the number of university students be doubled and that Arabic replace English as the language of instruction in universities. He dismissed about seventy faculty members at the University of Khartoum who opposed his reforms.yet

Girls' education

 Traditionally, girls' education was of the most rudimentary kind, frequently provided by a khalwa, or religious school, in which Quranic studies were taught. Such schools did not prepare girls for the secular learning mainstream, from which they were virtually excluded.
Babiker Badri - leading the education of girls in Sudan
Sheikh Babiker Badri, Sudan has had personal and unique fingerprint record the date in the field of education and women's education .. Horeb at a time when women go out for education have been rejected by society, parents and the tribe, but he fought the midst of all this and succeeded, and without it the woman was suffering from even the covenants that followed the al-Badri, or even today in the darkness of ignorance and Giahph, and stretched his hands to include Al-Badri linesmen after him still contributions are not fresh and unmistakable evidence of the beneficial educational legacy, and the family told us d. Qasim Badri this was the Heseltna.
The emergence of Al-Badri
* Family of the late Sheikh Babiker Badri's originally from the area were displaced to Rubatab Refaa area about 1964.
In Refaa Babiker Badri raised and studied alone and after the Mahdia engaged in the army of Imam Mahdi, Mohammed Ahmed and pledged allegiance in the white.
After you open and edit the Khartoum-Badri settled in Omdurman and then move with the army of Prince Dr. Alnujomi of Northern Sudan to Egypt is open, his family and his sons were captured and released him when he returned to Omdurman, and then to Refaa.
The work of trade between Suakin and Omdurman and the Berbers and Omdurman and after the incident repeat the work of trade in maize.
Access to the area of ​​teaching
* Trade Leads and entered the field of education after he announced the Director of the Blue Nile England for a job teaching and founded a school Refaa in 1903 and then asked to open a school for girls in 1905 only that his application was rejected and the new demand in 1907 and allowed him to establish the first school for girls in Sudan, provided that The name and is funded under any responsibility, and the work after the inspector education across the Sudan, despite the different fatigue and hardship to the lack of means of travel remained in education until he was brought for a pension in 1920.
1930 decided to open a school for boys called School grandchildren because after that he worked for (25) years old generation knows his sons are now aware generation grandchildren. He then moved the school to Refaa Omdurman in 1932 in homes Sheikh Abdel Nour Obeid and then to the house next to the school and then to the princely existing buildings are supplied Street Neighborhood House Nation Party.
Babiker Badri, the first foundations of an intermediate stage in 1943 and the first high school eligibility after Gordon then was followed by schools and Hantoub Tguet Creek Valley and the Prophet.
In the forties was the book mixed schools, boys and girls and the foundations of Al-Badri and middle school girls in 1950 and a secondary school for girls in 1955.
Late Youssef Badri
* Family of Badri - well - all good family Mirghani skeptical, and every owner, and worked in the field of education Abdul Kareem Badri, and good Mirghani skeptical, Mohamed Badri. And 1966 established Yousif Badri grandchildren University College for Girls and Joseph Gordon Badri later studied at the American University of Beirut and graduated from the College of Pharmacy and was the Wad. Ibrahim Kassem of the first pharmacists in the Sudan and the work of hospital civil and Pharmacy Omdurman after he resigned and worked grandchildren since the year 1943 until 1995, a scroll at the University College neighborhood vulnerability of its buildings current late eighties and started the Faculty of Sciences and family psychology and kindergartens, and then joined the school administrative management and rural development Finally, medicine and pharmacy.
D. Kassem Youssef Badri
* Is the current Dean of the Faculty of undergraduate grandchildren grandchildren all stages studied and studied literature at the American University in Beirut and earned a doctorate from the University of California, USA.
Al-Badri What is the solution
* Members of the family-Badri in teaching professor Malik Babiker Badri, studying psychology, Malaysia, and Mr. Abdel Moneim Badri, University of Mohammed bin Saud University in Riyadh, and Girls Al Badri Sarah Babiker Badri, Umm Salma Babiker Badri, and deprived the Babiker Badri, Zeinab and worked Faculty of parameters, and parameters also denied the Secretary and precious civil .. D and grandchildren now. Balqees Yusuf Badri, Wed. Safe sincere Badri, Wed. Princess Badri, and taught Fatima Abdul Kareem Badri, Babiker Badri, Stena and safe Ibrahim Malik - Central headmistress grandchildren and Ms. Fatima Badri taught at the University of Khartoum, econometrics, and also d. Sulafa Khaled Moussa al-Badri granddaughter works at the Food Research Dr. Nada Abdullah specialist underground.
Other area
* Late Badri Engineer vegetables in the field of engineering, education, and Dr.. Ali Badri, the first director of medical interest and the Minister of Health, Dr.. Ahmed Badry judge of the Supreme Court, and Farouk good Mirghani director of the Post and Telegraph, Wed. Ahmed Abdul Kareem Badri, the first director of the interest of horticulture and received a doctorate in agriculture, and Moses, Babiker Badri, the first pilot Sudan
بابكر بدري - رائد تعليم البنات فى السودان
الشيخ بابكر بدري شخصية سودانية لها سبق متفرِّد وبصمة سجلها التاريخ في مجال التعليم وتعليم المرأة.. حورب في زمن كان فيه خروج المرأة للتعليم مرفوضاً من قبل المجتمع والأهل والقبيلة، ولكنه خاض غمار كل ذلك ونجح، ولولاه لكانت المرأة ترزح حتى العهود التي أعقبت البدري أو حتى اليوم في ظلام الجهل وغياهبه، وامتدت أياديه لتشمل آل البدري حاملي الراية من بعده فلا تزال مساهماتهم لا تخطئها العين ماثلة ودليلا على النفع التعليمي المتوارث، وعن الأسرة حدثنا د. قاسم بدري فكانت هذه هي حصيلتنا
نشأة آل بدري
* أسرة المرحوم الشيخ بابكر بدري تنحدر أصلاً من منطقة الرباطاب نزحوا منها إلى منطقة رفاعة حوالى العام 1964
في رفاعة تربى بابكر البدري ودرس الخلوة وبعد أن قامت المهدية انخرط في جيش الإمام محمد أحمد المهدي وبايعه في منطقة الأبيض
بعد فتح وتحرير الخرطوم استقر البدري في ام درمان وتحرَّك بعدها مع جيش الأمير ود النجومي لشمال السودان لفتح مصر هو واسرته وابناؤه، وتم أسره وعندما اطلقوا سراحه رجع لامدرمان وبعدها إلى رفاعة
عمل بالتجارة بين سواكن وام درمان وبين بربر وام درمان وبعد واقعة كرري عمل بتجارة الذرة
الدخول لمجال التدريس
* ترك التجارة ودخل مجال التعليم بعد أن أعلن مدير مديرية النيل الأزرق الانجليزي عن وجود فرص للعمل بالتدريس وأسس مدرسة رفاعة عام 1903 وبعدها طلب فتح مدرسة للبنات عام 1905 إلا أن طلبه رفض وجدد الطلب عام 1907 وسمح له بإنشاء أول مدرسة للبنات في السودان بشرط أن تكون باسمه ويقوم هو بتمويلها أي تحت مسؤوليته، وعمل بعدها مفتش تعليم بأنحاء السودان المختلفة رغم التعب والمشقة لقلة وسائل السفر وظل بالتعليم حتى أحيل للمعاش عام 1920
عام 1930 قرر فتح مدرسة للبنين سماها مدرسة الأحفاد لأنه بعد أن عمل لمدة (25) سنة يعلم جيل ابنائه أصبح الآن يعلِّم جيل أحفاده. ثم انتقل بالمدرسة من رفاعة إلى ام درمان عام 1932 في بيوت شيخ عبيد عبد النور ثم إلى منزل جوار المدرسة الأميرية ثم إلى المباني الحالية الموجودة بشارع الموردة جوار دار حزب الأمة
اسس بابكر البدري أول مرحلة متوسطة سنة 1943 وأول مدرسة ثانوية أهلية بعد غردون ثم جاءت بعدها مدارس حنتوب وخور طقت ووادي سيدنا
في الأربعينيات كانت مدارس الكُتّاب مختلطة بنين وبنات وأسس البدري مدرسة بنات وسطى عام 1950 ومدرسة ثانوية للبنات عام 1955
المرحوم يوسف بدري
* أسرة بدري تضم - أيضاً- آل الطيب أسرة ميرغني شكاك، وآل مالك، وعمل في مجال التعليم عبد الكريم بدري والطيب ميرغني شكاك ومحمد بدري. وعام 1966 انشأ يوسف بدري كلية الأحفاد الجامعية للبنات ويوسف بدري درس بعد غردون بالجامعة الأميركية ببيروت وتخرج في كلية الصيدلة وكان هو ود. ابراهيم قاسم من أوائل الصيادلة في السودان وعمل بمستشفى مدني وصيدلية ام درمان بعدها استقال وعمل بالأحفاد منذ العام 1943 حتى العام 1995، وهو من انتقل بالكلية الجامعية لحي العرضة بمبانيها الحالية أواخر الثمانينيات وبدأت بكلية العلوم الأسرية وعلم النفس ورياض الأطفال ثم انضمت مدرسة التنظيم الإداري والتنمية الريفية وأخيراً 
الطب والصيدلة
د. قاسم يوسف بدري
* هو العميد الحالي لكلية الأحفاد الجامعية درس جميع المراحل بالأحفاد ودرس الآداب بالجامعة الأميركية ببيروت ونال درجة الدكتوراة من جامعة كاليفورنيا بالولايات المتحدة الأميركية.
آل البدري ابن الوز عوام
* من أفراد أسرة البدري في مجال التدريس بروفيسور مالك بابكر بدري يدرس علم النفس بماليزيا، والاستاذ عبد المنعم بدري بجامعة محمد بن سعود بالرياض، ومن بنات آل بدري سارة بابكر بدري، وام سلمى بابكر بدري، وحرم بابكر بدري وزينب وعملاتا بكلية المعلمات، ومن المعلمات أيضاً حرم الأمين ونفيسة المدني.. وبالأحفاد الآن د. بلقيس يوسف بدري، ود. آمنة الصادق بدري، ود. اميرة بدري، وبالتدريس الأستاذة فاطمة عبد الكريم بدري، وستنا بابكر بدري وآمنة ابراهيم مالك- ناظرة الأحفاد الوسطى والأستاذة فاطمة بدري تدرس بجامعة الخرطوم الاقتصاد القياسي، وأيضاً د. سلافة خالد موسى حفيدة البدري تعمل بمركز أبحاث الأغذية ود. ندى عبد الله اختصاصية باطنية
 مجالات أخرى يعمل بها ىل البدري
* المرحوم المهندس خضر بدري في مجال الهندسة والتعليم، ود. علي بدري أول مدير للمصلحة الطبية ووزير للصحة
ود. أحمد بدري قاضي المحكمة العليا، وفاروق الطيب ميرغني مدير مصلحة البريد والبرق، ود. أحمد عبد الكريم بدري أول مدير لمصلحة البساتين ونال دكتوراة في الزراعة، وموسى بابكر بدري أول طيار سوداني

Women education
 
 
 


  Adult Education for womenتعليم الكبار تجربه جيده ببوتسودان
 
Amnia Atiyahالأستاذه /آمنه عطيه    
                                      
                                                                         
  Women education Will be Contentious

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